ABANA 2k GATE PROJECT. OVERVIEW. JUL 8. IDEA DRAWINGS. SEP 9. CONCEPTUAL DRAWINGS. NOV 9. MANUAL OF BLACKSMITHING t CHAPTER I. The Joint Brass Oscillating Journal Bearings which enough for all kinds of light and heavy blacksmith's. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3.
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B.C. Drug and Poison Managemel Manual —Can. Hoffmann and the “ Blacksmith's Journal” showed some neat tricks using hollow tube. the blacksmiths journal volume 7 topic page issue date vol abana 2k gate project blacksmiths journal january vol 8 or read online here in PDF or EPUB. or piece of clothing which the blacksmith's skin has rubbed against is handed . of the Nyasaland Protectorate," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
The daily work scheduled including the mean duration of work per day and rest as well as the number of working days in a week and number of absent days in a week is mainly present in Table 2. It was observed that both the group of blacksmith skilled and unskilled works 6 days in a week. But the subjects of skilled blacksmith worked However, the subjects of the unskilled blacksmith worked The number of working days in a week among both skilled and unskilled blacksmith were 6 days in a week.
Table 3 shows the association between with discomfort and without discomfort feeling among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers.
In this case, a significant association was observed between with discomfort and without discomfort feeling among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Associations of with discomfort and without discomfort feeling between skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Intensity of pain among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers were measured by VAS rating.
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The Kruskal Wallis Test was performed to identify the deference of intensity of pain among the both group. By the statistical analysis of these data it was found that there is a significant difference of intensity of pain among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers [ Table 4 ].
The feeling of discomfort in different body parts in each group skilled and unskilled of workers is shown in Table 5. From this study it was observed that feeling of discomfort in different body parts varied among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Discomfort feeling pain at different body parts among skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers.
In the surgical blacksmith, the repetitiveness of the main activity, i.
It is observed that during a single cycle of This indicates that both group of surgical blacksmith performs repetitive activities in their daily work schedule [ Table 6 ]. The Table 7 shows the difference in general work nature among skilled and unskilled blacksmith. It observed that the unskilled blacksmith are using significantly higher weight of hammer 2. The skilled blacksmith had significantly higher handgrip strength than the unskilled blacksmith.
Table 9 showed that there is a significant change in heart rate in between skilled and unskilled blacksmith. Relation between hand grip strength in kg of the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Comparative study of physiological stress heart rate among skilled and unskilled blacksmith. The results of this study revealed that the surgical blacksmiths are engaged in rigorous hand intensive jobs, so naturally they suffer from various MSDs primarily affecting the upper extremity.
It can be observed from the present study that work-related incidents affect different body parts of the blacksmiths. This has also lead to a high rate of workday loss. Previously, it has been observed that unskilled blacksmiths fail to keep their commitments because of absenteeism.
The blacksmiths perform repetitive hammering jobs[ 17 ] that give shape to the surgical instruments. This type of job not only requires skill but is also time consuming. Hammering jobs are responsible for most of the incidents. The significant correlation between the total number of incidents and total workdays lost in a year is an indicator of the fact that frequent incidents result in lost workdays.
From the statistical analysis it is evident that there is a significant association between positive and negative responses of discomfort feeling among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. This suggests that the unskilled blacksmith workers engaged in hand intensive activities have to perform strenuous tasks repeatedly throughout the day, suffered the most, where as the skilled blacksmith workers suffered less.
It is also evident from the results that the unskilled blacksmith suffered from discomfort in the upper extremities in more number than the skilled blacksmith. It is found that the unskilled blacksmith workers had significantly higher intensity of pain feeling than the in the skilled blacksmith workers. Thus, it can be assumed that the job done by the unskilled blacksmith workers are extremely intense.
This finding can be supported further by the fact that the tasks performed by the unskilled blacksmith workers involve repetitive acceleration of hands with heavy hammer over sustained period of time.
According to Silverstein et al. This criterion of repetitiveness was satisfied in this study wherein the hammering activity covers Thus, high repetitiveness may be regarded as a causative factor for the development of MSD in upper limbs of the of the unskilled blacksmith workers predominantly.
This type of job not only requires skill but is also time-consuming. Gangopadhyay et al.
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Thus, it can be said that the unskilled blacksmiths are more affected than the skilled ones. Among them, incidents are very predominant, the unskilled ones involved in the highest number of incidents. A significant difference in handgrip strength at both positions was observed between the subjects of both the groups. The skilled ones had significantly higher handgrip strength than the unskilled ones.
Therefore, all the results when aggregated together provide a fairly clear indication of the fact that the unskilled blacksmiths are more liable to suffer from MSD of the upper limb than the skilled ones. From this study it can be concluded that the surgical blacksmiths are constantly engaged in highly repetitive hand intensive jobs and by performing such strenuous jobs for several years, they suffer from discomfort feeling at the upper extremities like the hands, wrists, fingers and shoulder region.
The feeling gets aggravated with prolonged work, injuries followed by a decrease in the handgrip strength, and inability in grasping objects. The finger is the most affected portion of the body, followed by the hand, wrist, eye, face, leg and back.
In both skilled and unskilled blacksmiths, the primary types of injuries are burns or scalds and scratches or abrasions. All these factors consequently may lead to the development of MSD at the upper limbs of the surgical blacksmiths.
The present investigation reveals that surgical blacksmiths are highly affected by upper extremity disorder. As a consequence, they suffer from injuries affecting different body parts.
Furthermore, these injuries contribute to a high rate of lost workdays. It also proved that the unskilled blacksmiths are more sufferer than the skilled blacksmiths. The demand—control model of Karasek[ 20 ] suggests that persons involved in highly skilled occupations, such as assembly fitters or call operators, can handle this type of situation.
Difficulties in withstanding this kind of physical and mental strain may be the cause of uncontrollable absenteeism. Thus, it can be concluded that the unskilled blacksmiths are highly stressed in their occupation due to the work nature, which also affects their health, productivity and overall work performance. The authors express their sincere gratitude to the blacksmiths who rendered immense co-operation during the completion of this study.
Source of Support: Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Occup Environ Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. For correspondence: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Abstract Objective: Materials and Methods: Blacksmith, hand grip strength, musculoskeletal disorder, visual analogue scale.
Assessment of physical parameters The height and weight of both groups of subjects were recorded by using an anthropometer and a weighing machine. Questionnaire A modified Nordic questionnaire[ 11 ] was applied which included a number of questions emphasizing individual details, type of work, upper extremity MSD symptoms, affected body parts, etc.
Repetitiveness of Work A study on repetitiveness was performed through the analysis of time and motion of work in both the groups. Grip Strength A physical examination was performed by handgrip dynamometer Make: Physiological Parameters A stop watch was used to measure the heart rate.
Table 1 General physical information of the workers. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Mean duration of work and rest per day with average number of working days in a week. Table 3 Associations of with discomfort and without discomfort feeling between skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers.
Table 4 Comparison of VAS rating among skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Table 5 Discomfort feeling pain at different body parts among skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. Table 6 Average repetitiveness of work activities among skilled and unskilled blacksmith. Table 7 General work nature among skilled and unskilled blacksmith. Table 8 Relation between hand grip strength in kg of the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers.
Table 9 Comparative study of physiological stress heart rate among skilled and unskilled blacksmith.
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Thus, high repetitiveness may be regarded as a causative factor for the development of MSD in upper limbs of the of the unskilled blacksmith workers predominantly This type of job not only requires skill but is also time-consuming. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Andersson GB.
The epidemiology of spinal disorders. Frymoyer JW, editor. The adult spine: Principles and practice. Lippincott-Raven Press; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; Bernard BP, editor.
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Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors. In this study, a few experiments have been carried out to settle this question. These experiments utilized a charcoal fire arrangement modeled after that probably used by some ancient smiths who first made iron in bloomery furnaces.
This bloom iron had to be re-heated and forged to both remove the slag, which would become viscous at the forging temperatures, and to form useful shapes. The resulting iron would contain slag stringers in an iron matrix and have virtually the same microstructure as that of modern wrought iron.
Experimental Design Because the early smiths had to heat the bloomery iron in order to forge it into useful shapes, it seems quite reasonable that at least some of them used the same bloomery furnaces to heat the iron to forging temperatures. Therefore, these experiments on evaluating carburization of iron were done in hot charcoal contained in a cylindrical furnace that has been used to successfully produce bloomery iron from iron ore. An air blower was used to supply air to the two tuyeres at an equal and adjustable rate.
Four thermocouples extended vertically into the chamber, one from below and three from above as shown in Fig. The experiment began by adding propane to the air for a short time to ignite the charcoal and then turning off the propane and controlling the air flow to heat the charcoal bed. A mm-diameter rod was welded to the upper end of each plate. It extended up to the holder plate to position and hold the wrought iron plates stationary.
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The plates were positioned with the set of 3 thermocouples sandwiched between them. The plates were coded bar A and bar B for the A and B irons, respectively. The two bars were made of wrought iron because wrought iron is an excellent match of the old bloomery iron. Just as with bloomery iron, wrought iron is essentially a nearly pure iron containing copious stringers of slag inclusions. The plates were made from two different large pieces known to be wrought iron by forging followed by rolling.
Table I Emission spectrograph analysis of the wrought iron plates Plate.Beyond that they could be sold as printed collections, grouping them however that makes sense to do. From this study it was observed that feeling of discomfort in different body parts varied among the skilled and unskilled blacksmith workers. The result is that many people who have failed in other directions feel they have a bent for dental surgery.
After explaining the aim of the study in a layman's term, each subject was approached and the questionnaire was performed individually and collected on the spot on the same day. Posted June 24, Repetitiveness of work and hand grip strength of both the groups were measured. This criterion of repetitiveness was satisfied in this study wherein the hammering activity covers Am J Ind Med.
A few have sections where the book didn't scan cleanly but those are few and far between. Truchon et al.